Monday, January 20, 2020

Chinese Dynasties Essay -- essays research papers

Chinese Dynasties: 1. Shang: Also called Yin, dynasty that was China's earliest historically verifiable state 1766 B.C. to 1122 B.C. A. Reason's for Rise: Unlike the early accounts of history by the Chinese, there is archaeological evidence of the Shang, who built their cities in northern China around the eastern parts of the Yellow River. For this reason they are called the Yellow River civilization. They were a bronze age people; bronze-working seems to have entered China around 2000 BC (about one thousand years after its invention in Mesopotamia). B. Territorial Location & size at height of power (map): The Shang ruled the area from the North China Plain northward into present-day Shantung Province and westward to the tip of Honan Province. C. System of government & rule & names of noted rulers and their accomplishments: A city-state confederation with a three-fold structure of king, officials, commoners. D. Major Religious beliefs & practices: The Shang worshiped the earth and other nature deities to whom they offered human sacrifices. They communicated with the supernatural by writing messages on oracle bones. E. *Major Accomplishments, Achievements, and contributions: The Shang society was many agricultural. They had a large army. Bronze casting was highly developed and a writing system had evolved. There commerce was highly developed and they used cowrie shells was used as currency. Shang art consisted of Bronze, pottery, and jade ornaments. Writing: The singular aspect of Shang civilization is their invention of writing. Almost all the written records of the Shang have disappeared, for the court records were kept on strips of bamboo. However, inscriptions on bronze and on the oracle bones still survive so we have specimens of the very first Chinese writings. The writing system was originally pictographic, that is, words were represented by pictures that fairly closely resembled the meaning of the word. The picture for "sun," f or instance, looked much like the sun. This pictographic writing eventually developed into the more complex ideographic writing that we are more familiar with. Chinese writing is one of the only contemporary writing systems that still prominently bears traces of its pictographic origins. Religion: The Shang worshipped a figure they called "Shang Ti," or "Lord on High." This supreme ... ...locally developed. This was especially true in China, with its ancient and vast bureaucracy. While Genghis Khan was still living, he divided the empire between his four favorite sons. Tului, the youngest, received the original Mongol homelands and parts of northern China. Ogadai received western Mongolia and part of northwestern China. Chagatai was given most of Turkestan in Central Asia. The oldest son, Juchi, received southwestern Siberia, western Turkestan, and Russian lands stretching north of the Black Sea. A fifth section of the empire was later added when Hulagu, a son of Tului, conquered Iran, Iraq, and Syria in the 1250s. D. Major Religious beliefs & practices: E. *Major Accomplishments, Achievements, and contributions: The largest empire ever seen F. Major reasons for decline and fall: Genghis Khan and his eldest son, Juchi, both died in 1227. At a convocation of Mongol leaders, Ogadai was appointed supreme khan. Juchi's lands in the west were inherited by his son B atu. Ogadai made his capital at Karakorum in central Mongolia. He immediately set out to add more of China to the Mongol conquests. By 1234 all but the southernmost region of China had been incorporated.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Comparing and Contrasting Political Ideologies: Robert Kaplan vs. Noam Chomsky Essay

1. Chomsky Thesis Outline: The main points within Noam Chomsky’s thesis revolve around his idealistic values and his concept of †Elemental Morality†. When describing his concept of †Elemental Morality† Chomsky explains that if people cannot rise to the level that has them apply the same standards to themselves that they apply to others, they have no right to talk about what’s right and wrong. A common example of this hypocrisy has been executed by the United States-whom Chomsky claims to be a † leading terrorist state†- in an attempt to justify their country’s terrorist acts. In other words, when they do it it’s terrorism, but when we do it its counterterrorism. When looking at the U.S. invasion of Iraq, the war aims were claimed to be to overthrow the country’s brutal dictator Saddam Hussein, in which they succeeded. The U.S. has a history of using the fight for democracy as a justification for overthrowing regimes. However, Chomsky argues that the best way to overthrow power centers and brutal regimes is to do so from within with support of internal democratic organizations. Ironically the very regimes that are being fought against have commonly been found to have support from the U.S.: South Eastern Turkey (the Kurds), Nicaragua in the 1980s, Israel, and Afghanistan during the 1980s to name a few. In Chomsky’s eyes all of these atrocities are all equally immoral simply because they are all atrocities. Chomsky explains that if we want to stop comparing atrocities, the easiest way is to stop participating in them and try to find other ways to deal with  them. As a result, as long as people are able to think for themselves and free themselves from ‘the right wing imperialists’, then they can pose the same elementary morality, levels of violence and turmoil will globally decrease. Kaplan Thesis Outline: Robert Kaplan has been known for his right-wing views on foreign policy, his concept of †Pagan Ethos†, and his Hobbsian outlook on human nature and society. Kaplan believes that Judeo-Christian values have no place in politics (Pagan Ethos) and defies Chomsky’s concept of â€Å"Elemental Morality† by claiming that we need to accept the necessary evil for the greater good. However this is not to say that there is no line to be crossed morally when accepting such evil, for if more evil is used than ‘necessary’, those committing it will lose their credibility and virtuousness. In Kaplan’s opinion, humanity is not enough of a reason for the U.S. to intervene in a country’s conflict. He feels that in order for the Americans to justifiably enter a crisis they need to have interest in it as well. In a nation’s time of crisis where time is of the essence, Kaplan infers that it’s all about the short-term decisions the country makes. In terms of domestic policy versus foreign policy Kaplan believes that internationally the world is a lawless place (Hobbsian), and that we should enforce ‘Soft American Imperialism’. This concept suggests that foreign policy should be run by self-interest, which leads into Kaplan’s aspiration of the United States becoming the world’s ‘Organizing Hegemon’. Kaplan concurs that the United States is the only country whose power and force capable of properly executing a small amount of evil for the greater good. 2. Similarity: In terms of the application of morals in foreign policy, Kaplan has given some leeway towards Chomsky’s concept of ‘Elemental Morality.’ Kaplan acknowledges that there are certain situations where we should act on morality, and that it would be unacceptable to maintain total realistic values. Genocide might be an example; he cites Darfur, and Bosnia where the  U.S. should have intervened on humanitarian grounds alone. Kaplan recognizes â€Å"without an idealistic component to our foreign policy, there would be nothing to distinguish us from our competitors,† and â€Å"Pure realism—without a hint of idealism—would immobilize our mass immigrant democracy, which has always seen itself as an agent of change.† This is concurrent with Chomsky’s assertion in which he states that he is â€Å"guided by moral principles† and elaborates that â€Å"the main reason for my concern with U.S. foreign policy are that I find it, in gener al, horrifying,† and â€Å"the foreign policy of other states is also in general horrifying† Differences: 1)Where Chomsky feels that all atrocities are equal simply because they are atrocities, Kaplan claims that ‘adult choice in foreign policy is based on distinction’ and that some atrocities were necessary in order to contribute to the greater good. As an example to prove his point Kaplan uses Winston Churchill, whom during WWII had to make the decision to either warn Coventry of oncoming German bombers and risk the Germans discovering the British had cracked the Enigma Code, or allow Coventry to be bombed and have the upper hand against the Germans when intercepting their messages. In the end Churchill chose the latter, knowing full well that although his decision cost thousands of lives, the information the British obtained would potentially save hundreds of thousands-if not millions (the ends justify the means). 2)In terms of how Kaplan and Chomsky believe international feuds should be dealt with, Kaplan argues that humanity alone is not enough of a reason for the United States to intervene in a crisis; they need to have interest in the country itself to make their efforts worthwhile. However, Chomsky feels that if we want to stop atrocities we need to stop participating in them and try finding a more alternative and peaceful approaches to a solution. As long as people are able to think for themselves and free themselves from the mindset of ‘the right wing imperialists’ they can impose ‘Elemental Morality’ and therefore progress to peaceful solutions in a more productive manner than simply invading a country. 3. Opinion on Chomsky: I agree with Chomsky’s theory that the United States is a leading terrorist state, and that the government is hypocritical in the context of defining which nations are committing acts of terrorism as opposed to their own state’s actions. Post 9/11 the Bush Administration was quoted saying, â€Å"As we stated previously there is no middle ground between those who oppose terrorism and those who support it.† Yet, the U.S. has had alliances with Israel, Turkey (the Kurds), Russia, China, Indonesia, Egypt, and Algeria â€Å"all of whom are delighted to see an international system develop sponsored by the U.S. which will authorize them to carry out their own terrorist atrocities†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The U.S. was also â€Å"†¦the only country that was condemned for international terrorism by the World Court and that rejected a Security Council resolution calling on states to observe international law.† So why is it that the U.S. has failed to acknowledge themselves as a terrorist state? Perhaps they are too ignorant, or they simply do recognize it but choose to glaze over the facts in order to try preserving their image as a nation ‘fighting against terrorism’. As for Chomsky’s concept of â€Å"Elementary Morality†, I do consider the idea of people having no double standards when criticizing others for their actions to be a decent ideal to strive for. However, realistically the idea of getting the entire world to one day obtain this mindset is very far fetched. I feel that I side more with Kaplan when I say that the world will always have evil people in it, and they will find a way to inflict inhumane actions upon others. Opinion on Kaplan: From a practical perspective, Kaplan’s theories on foreign policy have more relevancies. Take the example of Syria for instance, and compare Chomsky’s standpoint on statehood and overthrowing regimes in relation to Kaplan’s more measured approach on intervening in other countries. Both Chomsky and Kaplan might agree that the atrocities undertaken by the Assad regime in Syria are just that: immoral and atrocious. However, where Chomsky professes a role of non-intervention for the sake of avoiding hypocrisy, and  would see a benefit rather than a tragedy in the dissolution of statehood, Kaplan would have us ask: â€Å"What is the cost of waiting for internal resolution?† and, indeed, â€Å"When are the costs—both economic and human—too high?† To date, in Syria, the U.S. has chosen a ‘non-imperialist’ standpoint more in line with Chomsky’s model of foreign policy for Syria, and what has been the result: â€Å"more t han 120,000 deaths; approximately two million refugees; four million internally displaced; a proxy war between Sunni-dominated countries and Shiah-dominated countries in the region; the largest use of chemical weapons against civilian populations in 25 years.† Mounting humanitarian and economic consequences, in my view, are grounds for considering action rather than inaction in foreign affairs. As Errol Mendes, Professor of International Law at University of Ottawa and visiting fellow at Harvard Law School writes: â€Å"What the failure to act early and especially in the face of the worst forms of violation of international criminal law by the Assad regime has shown is that sometimes the failure to act in such a situation is in fact acting by omission with devastating consequences for the country, the region and the entire global community.† 4. Benefit of Comparing: Having an open mind to both Chomsky and Kaplan’s views is simply a good way to extend our knowledge on different theories regarding foreign policy. Moreover, the benefit of comparing Chomsky and Kaplan’s ideologies is that it allows us to recognize there are different, and simultaneously compelling ways to respond to global conflict. Knowing the similarities and differences of both extreme idealism and realism, and weighing options in a time of national or potentially international crisis, can help lead to policy that is based on an informed choice. The importance of well-informed and carefully considered policy in international relations is the consequences. As Chomsky, himself stresses: â€Å"The impact of U.S. foreign policy on millions of people throughout the world is enormous, and furthermore these policies substantially increase the probability of superpower conflict and global catastrophe.† Bibliography Chomsky, Noam. 9-11. New York: Seven Stories, 2001. 40-55. Print. Kaplan, Robert D. â€Å"Interventionism’s Realistic Future.† Washington Post (2006): 1-2. Print Mendes, Errol. â€Å"The Cost of Non-intervention in Syria.† The Cost of Non-intervention in Syria. Ottawa Citizen, 26 Aug. 2013. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. â€Å"†The Reasons for My Concern†Ã¢â‚¬  Interview by Celia Jakubowicz. Noam Chomsky and U.S. Foreign Policy. Third World Traveller, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. .

Saturday, January 4, 2020

A Reflection Of Mankind In Hamlet - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1061 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/04/10 Category Literature Essay Level High school Topics: Hamlet Essay William Shakespeare Essay Did you like this example? Hamlet Analysis William Shakespeares Hamlet provides a deep analysis into the lives of the plays characters and how their actions reflect mankind. The play is centered around a young prince, Hamlet, who learns of a tragic event that will impact his life immensely. Hamlets father has died and his uncle, Claudius, has married Hamlets mother and now occupies the throne as king of Denmark. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "A Reflection Of Mankind In Hamlet" essay for you Create order Upon Hamlets arrival to Denmark to mourn the death of his father, he encounters what appears to be the ghost of his deceased father. The Ghost informs Hamlet that the late king was murdered by Claudius and urges Hamlet to seek revenge. Provided with this rather heavy news concerning his fathers death, Hamlet decides to set out on a journey to discover the truth for himself. It is not uncommon for an individual to take risks to reach success. Many times, in order to achieve a certain goal, a sacrifice must be made. In Hamlet, the characters often delve into acts of deception and betrayal for the sake of obtaining something, implementing revenge, or masking the truth. These two themes remain constant throughout the progression of the play as each character participates in dishonesty and disloyalty to one another in attempt to satisfy their own selfish gains. The actions and relationships between the characters explores the dual nature of humankind and how reality often falls short of expectations. However truthful or trustworthy a character may appear to the audience, Shakespeare adds in a twist that alters the entire play. The satisfaction of ones desires and the advancement of ones power in society serve a huge role in the play. As such, the characters will often go to great lengths to achieve this. Throughout the play, Hamlet frequently falls victim to the betrayal of those from his own family. Knowing that Hamlet was still in despair over his fathers passing, Gertrude, Hamlets mother and queen of Denmark, was quick to jump into a bed of incest with Claudius (1.2.156-157). This course of action perhaps acts as a catalyst to Hamlets madness and possibly serves as an underlying motive for avenging his fathers death. In addition, Claudius, current king of Denmark and Hamlets uncle, claims to love Hamlet as a son, though it is clear that his intentions lie elsewhere. By killing King Hamlet, Claudius has claimed the throne, satisfied his ambition, and married the queen. Though he is fully aware that his soul is stuck to sin, and the more it struggles to break free, the more it sticks, he is not ready to g ive up his power (3.3.69-70). It goes without saying that Claudius is indeed not remorseful, since after sensing a shift in Hamlets disposition, Claudius takes immediate action to ensure that the truth remains hidden. Not only do Gertrude and Claudius fall into a selfish state, but they hurt Hamlet in the act of doing so. The ghost of King Hamlet is an important influencer in determining the fate of the characters. It is the supplier of information regarding what is said to be the truth and ultimately, the creator of conflict within the play. Upon Hamlets interaction with the Ghost, the young prince begins to question himself and his sanity. The Ghost wants Hamlet to revenge his foul and unnatural murder, yet Hamlet is presented with a moral dilemma (1.5.31). Though ending Claudius life may bring Hamlet peace, it does not guarantee an end to all his troubles. During the play, Hamlet sees an opportunity to kill Claudius for his wrong acts, yet notices that Claudius is kneeling in prayer. This leads Hamlet to decide that killing someone while they are praying will only send to heaven, but Hamlet wants Claudius to suffer in hell (3.3.75-85). It is ironic to note, however, that what Claudius prayer entailed was not what one would expect. Instead, Claudius admits that he is not ready to surrender what he g ained from the murder. Therefore, Hamlet could have easily acted had he not mistrusted his own intuition. It appears Hamlets hesitation to act is a betrayal not only to himself, but to his father. He is at a constant war with his own thoughts and feelings. The doubt of his own rationality sends Hamlet further into his madness, which only contributes further to his downfall. The truth of a situation will always find its way out one way or another. In the play, Hamlet struggles a great deal with indecisiveness and the inability to act. As a result, he turns to religion to seek guidance while attempting to muster up the strength to kill his uncle. This internal conflict is ongoing and remains a constant obsession for him throughout the play. Claudius, on the other hand, acts on his intuition without any forethought. It can be noted that Claudius is a foil to Hamlet as these two characters differ greatly in their moral values and actions. Claudius speculations about what Hamlet may or may not know sends him into a state of unease, thus he decides to send Hamlet away to England. Not only does Claudius deceive the people of Denmark by killing their king, but he tries to justify Hamlets leave by saying it is for the princes own good. Out of fear of being discovered as a murderer, Claudius also delivers a letter to England ordering the death of Hamlet so as to preserve his position as king (4.3.60-64). At the end of the play, however, death takes the lives of many of the main characters. The truth is poisonous and once it is revealed, it is like a mouse caught in [his] own trap (5.2.302). Hamlet is an eloquently composed tragedy that reveals how deceit and betrayal can lead to ones demise. Often times, the characters sacrifice their relationships with one another to fulfill their own desires. Claudius and Gertrude put an emotional strain on Hamlets mind in order to achieve personal satisfaction. Additionally, Hamlet must shoulder the burden of his fathers death and decide how to implement action against it. The play reveals not only an ongoing struggle with ones family and friends, but a war with oneself. Though many people want to know the truth of a situation, it can sometimes lead to unbearable conflict. Through the interactions and responses between the characters, Shakespeare illustrates the best and the worst that can arise from human nature.

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Brain Development in Young Children - 696 Words

There are many stages that happen when a baby brain is developing. The first three years are what makes the brain responsive to external input. There first three years can capture more efficiently then it will be able to later on. The brain goes through three trimester when it is developing. The brain development is the major conductor for helping a young child learn and comprehend what they are doing. There are also ways that parents and teachers can help enhance the brain development for young children. The pregnancy period is also a main factor with the brain development. The reason for that is because they learn the voice of their mother from her reading. So when the baby is born the can recognize their mother by her voice. During the first trimester is the formation of neural tubes. About seven weeks after the neurons and synapse begin to develop in the spinal cord, which allows the fetus to make movement. In the second trimester is where the gyri and scili appear in the brain s urface. This process is called myelination. This allows the information to process faster in the brain. In order for the brain to achieve the same level of efficiency without myelination the spinal cord would have to be three yards diameter. The third trimester is the transitional period, which is the reflexes such as fetal breathing and responses to the stimuli. Also, during this period the cerebral cortex supports early learning. As they start to get older they are able to develop moreShow MoreRelatedThe Plasticity At A Young Age1693 Words   |  7 PagesThe brain is constantly changing and molding from new experiences. The plasticity at a young age presents itself in an enormous amount which allows the brain to change and adapt. When a child is bestowed with a traumatic experience at a young age they learn from that and are effected tremendously, because that’s all the knowledge they contain. Traits are hard wired into people and that coming from parents it already sets a path to follow and in a way already makes them who they are, but an environmentRead MoreResearch Task: Give examples, of the kinds of influences that affect children and young persons’ development including: (a) Personal factors (health), (b) External factors (environment)1121 Words   |  5 Pagesof the kinds of influences that affect children and young persons’ development including: (a) Personal factors (health), (2.1) (b) External factors (environment), (2.2) Answer: (a) Personal factors that influence/affect children and young person’s development (health) †¢ Disabilities such as blindness, deafness, and other physical handicaps can cause learning loss as the child therefore is physically hindered and as we know all areas of development are interlinked, so the others will beRead MoreCYPOP 1 Work with babies and young children to promote their development and learning1731 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿Task – CYPOP 1 Work with babies and young children to promote their development and learning Task 1 An explanation of the potential effects on development of babies and young children of the following experiences. All babies and young children can show different rates of development. It is often linked to experiences during conception, pregnancy and childbirth. pre-conceptual Lifestyle of parents can have effect on child’s potential development and this is because men’s sperm and women’sRead More Brain Development in Children Essay547 Words   |  3 Pagesthe past decade have allowed scientists to study the brain in ways that have led to new understanding about how young children develop. There is a new understanding of both the capabilities and the vulnerabilities of infants and young children and that understanding is has influenced the work of caregivers and teachers. During pregnancy, the basic architecture of the brain is formed. Although, certain experiences do influence the developing brain during pregnancy, such as maternal health and stressRead MoreHealthy Eating and Brain Development1700 Words   |  7 PagesHealthy Eating and Brain Development Axia College of University of Phoenix Healthy brain development has a direct relationship with proper nutrition. Toddler’s need a well balanced diet that will help with their brain development and achievement for the future. Poor nutrition before birth and the first few years of life can lead to neurological and behavioral disorders. For children under the age of two, healthy eating has a positive impact on the development of their brains. Healthy eatingRead MoreThe Effects Of Technology On Teen s Brain Development1708 Words   |  7 Pagesabout the amount of screen time teens should be exposed to, and if the use of technology can affect a teen’s brain development. The American Academy of Pediatrics, or the AAP, is considering raising the two hour screen time limit to four hours because of the growing use of electronics in our day and age. However, because teens’ brains develop differently than adults, parts of their brains are not mature enough. Some parts, such as the prefrontal cortex, which is r esponsible for thinking ahead andRead MoreEarly Childhood Education Is The Most Rapid Period Of Development960 Words   |  4 PagesAfter doing a little research I have come to the conclusion that Early Childhood Education is the most rapid period of development in a human brain. The years from conception through birth to eight years of age critical to the complete and healthy cognitive, emotional and physical growth of children. The brain is part of the central nervous system, and plays a decisive role in controlling many bodily functions, including both voluntary activities such as walking or speaking and involuntary onesRead MoreChild s Reasoning And Problem Solving Development1428 Words   |  6 Pages the baby’s brain contains billion of neurons that will grow into neural synapses. These neural synapses, in turn, turn into â€Å"skills† such as learning how to hold a bottle, how to write or draw, or how to ride a bicycle. These skills require hardwiring so that the skill can be learned and embedded in the brain. The phrase â€Å"use it or lose it† closely ties to a young child’s brain synapses that are not wired together through stimulation are lost throughout adolescence. A child’s brain is more susceptibleRead MoreThe Mind Of A Child893 Words   |  4 PagesThe Mind of a Child Unlike adults, children cannot be punished even for committing serious crimes such as murder because the legal system indicates that young children cannot be held responsible for such crimes. There are biological, cognitive, and emotional or social development factors behind this policy. The biological argument for this policy holds that a child below six years would be excused from responsibility for their actions because their part of the brain that helps in strategizing, planningRead MoreIntegration Of Arts And The Arts798 Words   |  4 PagesIntegration of Arts Paper The incorporation of music, movement, and the arts is critical to a young child’s learning, growth and development. Each of these creative arts allow children to make meaningful connections and retain the information being taught in the classroom. It also allows for children to focus more in the classroom and it improve their behavior as well. Multiple intelligences also play a role in music, movement, and the arts. By using these creative arts in the classroom, educators

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Marx s Views On Private Property - 1157 Words

Introduction English philosopher John Locke and German philosopher Karl Marx seem completely opposed in their views of private property. While Locke believes that private property is a natural right, Marx believes that private property should be abolished. Throughout this paper, Locke’s and Marx’s individual philosophies on private property will be presented and examined. Ultimately, this paper seeks to show the similarities between these thinkers’ viewpoints on private property and demonstrate that Marx’s philosophies have some roots in Locke’s. Moreover, this paper will examine how these philosophies affected the course of social, economic, and civilizational process. Private Property and its Relation to Government and Society Locke saw the ownership of property an important natural rights, as well as fundamental to a good government and society. He believed that all citizens had a right toâ€Å"life, liberty, and property†, if they had the means to attain it (SOURCE). He discusses his theories of property in the Second Treatise of Government. He said that God gave man the earth to hold in common. However, once man adds labor to the earth it becomes their private property. When a man plows a field, for example, it becomes his and so too do the benefits (or the fruits) of this land. The main purpose of the government, for Locke, is to protect an individual’s private property. When a state of nature is in place, there is no way for an individual to ensure that their propertyShow MoreRelatedJohn Locke s Views On Private Property And Politics1133 Words   |  5 Pagesdifferent perspectives regarding private property and politics in society. Although John Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, and Karl Marx/Frederick Engels are from different times their criticism are crucial onto the world. Being from different eras gives them a unique perspective of how one should rule or govern. Each philosopher displays his own ideas and can seemingly disagree with one another in their methods of government. Therefore when issues of malicious rulers, private property, and politics arise, eachRead MoreThe Marx And Marx s Views On History And Society, By Robert C. Tucker Essay1368 Words   |  6 PagesThe Marx-Engels Reader By Robert C. Tucker is an anthology containing essential wr itings of German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Major writing selections are to understand Marx perspective about history and society, such as The German Ideology. Marx introduces his historical materialism philosophy in the German Ideology: Part 1 of this book, where he proposes communism. Although I agree with a few points Marx gives, I can not accept his overall conclusion that communism is the onlyRead MoreJohn Locke And Karl Marx On Private Property1389 Words   |  6 Pagesconcept of private property has been discussed over centuries – whether what falls into private property, and if it is just to have it. It is the law of nature to use the goods given by the earth, but the difference between public and personal use is still at question. John Locke and Karl Marx are two important philosophers who analysed the concept of private property and how they believe it should be used. They both use their understanding of the law of nature to construct their views on private propertyRead MoreEssay on Wealth and Poverty: Karl Marx1711 Words   |  7 Pageseconomic growth, it also was a period of disparity and poverty. Karl Marx, a German philosopher, saw this inequality growing between what he called the bourgeoisie and the proletariat classes. The bourgeoisie was the middle/upper class which was growing in due to the industrial revolution, and the proletariats were the working class, the poor. These two classes set themselves apart by many different factors. Marx saw five big problems that set the proletariat and the bourgeoisie aside fromRead MoreKarl Marx : A German Influential Philosopher And One Of The Intellectual Fathers Of Communism1477 Words   |  6 PagesKarl Marx is known to be a German influential philosopher and one of the intellectual fathers of communism, writing when the industrial revolution and imperialism period was changing the nature of both the economies of individual nations and the global economy itself. He eradicated his view on the effects these changes had on individual workers and society. This introduced many of his theories, one of which was the idea of alien ated labor. Alienated labor was written in 1844, Marx sets the view thatRead MoreDialectical Journal Michael Chang The Communist Manifesto 1422 Words   |  6 Pages Dialectical Journal Michael Chang The Communist Manifesto by. Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Text Date Response The Manifesto begins with Marx quoting, the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Marx describes these classes as two entities; The bourgeoisie as the rich capitalists, and the proletariats, who were the working class. In societies of past, the oppressor and oppressed are in constant opposition to each other. This fight can be obvious or sublimeRead MoreA Communist Perspective1325 Words   |  6 Pagesgreater goal that benefits all. By cooperating with one another, the goals set by the community can be met in a more timely fashion and aids the community s needs. The last component of the communist subject stands alone as the only element that appeals to an individualistic atmosphere. Common ownership determines the subject’s physical property that calls for a more individualistic factor to the communist community as a whole. Communism allows equal share of ownership to individuals who exhibit proprietyRead MoreThe Labor Theory Of Value1696 Words   |  7 Pagesnamed Karl Marx believes this theory proves that capitalism is inherently exploitative of the working class. Every person has labor power, or the ability to work. However, labor power is fueled by external resources (such as food, wa ter, clothing, and transportation to the workplace) which all have value as well, so when an individual s work is more valuable than that sustenance, surplus value generates. Surplus value will benefit the business rather than the laborer, therefore Marx believed capitalismRead MoreRousseau s The Social Contract1588 Words   |  7 PagesThe following texts, Rousseau s The Social Contract, Marx’s Private Property and Communism, Estranged Labor and Money, all differentiate between a general will, and a more personal, individual will. However, Rousseau’s and Marx’s theories of a general will, or collective being have discrepancies in both the origin and implications of general will and individual will. Rousseau defines general will as a collective desire to advance society towards a common goal. However, Rousseau warns that ignoringRead MoreMachiavelli, Locke, By John Machiavelli1484 Words   |  6 PagesTimothy Tran Robert Patch History 15 20 June 2015 Machiavelli, Locke, Marx Essay Locke would argue that Machiavelli represents the interests of monarchs who rule without the consent of the people. Locke is against absolute power; he thinks that the government should not be given all the power and that the people should get some of it. Machiavelli on the other hand would want all the power to be given to one person, so that they can make the decisions. Machiavelli argues that because of human nature

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Business Culture of Singapore & Australia-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Business Culture of Singapore and Australia. Answer: Rational for country choice This report focuses on the cultural factors of the country Australia. The country has the combination of various cultures which attract foreign companies for the business expansion. Due to innovative business culture, organizations are trying to enter in the country. Country has fair and direct way of communication process. In the direct culture of country, people express themselves freely and speak clearly in the discussions. Along with this, the business and work environment of the country is mostly laid-back and there are good manager-staff relationship in the organizations. Along with this, the work environment and business culture of the country is the consensus oriented. So, this is the reason to select Australia for the study. This country is famous as the wine and seafood country across the world. One of the main attractions of the country is festivals and events that attract tourists from many different countries. Famous as the wine country in the world, the country produces world-class wine in more than 10 different varieties for the tourists (Yildiz, 2014). This region is turning as one of the fastest growing tourist destination because of expenditure done by visitors in last decades. Australia is the country which has fair and direct way of communication. This report focuses on the cultural aspect of the host country which is Australia and Singapore is considered as the home country in this report. There is differentiation between the business culture of Singapore and Australia which is described in report. Along with this, the report also focuses on the Hofstede model of culture to analyze the cultural satiation if Australia fir business operations. The cultural analysis of the country includes communication practices, political and ecological situation of country, local culture and management style of the country. Cultural analysis of Australia Multicultural country There are people in Australia who come from the various backgrounds. Many people in the country have Irish and British backgrounds. At the time of Second World War, many people came from various European countries and different parts of the world. In current time, one third of Australians were born in another country. This country is popular choice for tourists due the hotels, transport, culture, nightlife, food, events and festivals. The country is the most important tourism destination among the tourists. So, Australia is the country of multi culture. Immigration has helped the country to become a dynamic country. Political, social and economical situation Australia has federal constitutional parliamentary democracy so Australians elect parliamentarians for the federal parliament. They have voting rights and it is important for people to give vote. Once people reach 18 years of age, they are obliged to vote. The political situation of the country allows people to live with the freedom. Looking at the social and economic aspects of the country, people have their own personal welfare. For instance, local crime and public safety, food and health, rights to basic services, equality of opportunities as well as civil and personal liberties are the rights for Australians. Local culture The culture of Australia is western culture which is basically derived from Britain but it is influenced by the unique geography of Australian continent. The oldest surviving cultures of the country are Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal people of Australia. The people in the country are basically open, laid back and direct. They generally say what they mean and are more individual and outgoing as compared to other culture. It is observed that more than three quarters of people in the country are living in cities and urban centers along the coast. Communication Communication is the important topic in the business world. In Australia, there are some aspects of communication which must be taken into consideration. It is observed that the Australians value directness over negotiation. While communicating in the country, Australians are not self promotional and in the business life, they show dedication and credibility. This is the normal part of their culture. The country has fair and direct way of communication. In the direct culture of Australia, people say clearly and briefly without adding lots of context. Along with this, they use some non-verbal communication styles so that the spoken message should be delivered with all the relevant information. When a person in Australia gives a message, he expects from the other person to understand the message completely. This reflects the effective business communication styles in Australia. Management style There is the casual atmosphere in Australia which is very important for the business. The Australian business culture is very much included with the opinion of the individuals. So, the culture has consultative style of management which includes open debate. Quite the different, it shows the professionalism and dedication of the Australians. Managers in country do not isolate themselves from other members in the business. Business culture of Australia Australia is the second most individualistic culture in the world after U.S. In the country, business culture is more relationship oriented. It is focused on establishing trust, relying and supporting on the important elements of the business. The work environment and business culture of the country is the consensus oriented. There are consensus oriented style rather than highly directive leadership styles. Senior managers generally consult with the subordinates while making the decisions in the business. In terms of doing business, Australians do not focus on having long-terms relationships with the people (Vidal-Suarez Lopez-Duarte, 2013). Openness There is the openness in the business culture of Australia. People are open and free to put their ideas and viewpoints for the business operations. There is the highly valued culture in Australia. People have traits of the openness and direct manners in which their daily lives are connected. Australians are educated and straight forward in their communications. They have string and confrontational opinions for others. They always value for the directness and respect those people who express their own beliefs and views. In the business context, Australians have new ideas and they are motivated to live discussion and debate (Singh, Joshi Mandhan, 2014). Individualism This is the unique character of the Australians and this is the way adopted by them to interact with other people in the society. Along with this, there is one more characteristics of individualism which must take into consideration that it focuses on the personal privacy of differentiate people from the public and focuses on the private life of people. Equality The Australian culture has the characteristics of quality. The country has the culture of equality where the differences in the status do not matter in the business. This culture in the society avoids the differentiation the people having high income and status. Thus culture includes mutual respect for each other. There is equality in the Australian society focuses on all the aspects of Australian life and business sphere. The Australians avoid academic qualifications, business success and personal achievements since this may perceived as arrange (Akanni, Ahammad, 2015). Difference with Singapore The culture of Singapore focuses on the long term working relations. It is observed that as compared to Australians, the managers of Singapore are more committed towards the long term relationship in business. In terms of cultural differences between Singapore and Australia, people in Singapore are candid, direct, and state to their points with the confrontational way. The approach of Singapore culture is pragmatic along with the ability to discuss any point. Along with this, there is the large difference in the business culture of Australia and Singapore in terms of the working hours. The working hours in Singapore are longer and more intense as compared to Australia. That can be a big cultural difference in the work culture of Australia and Singapore. In the Singapore, values are less among the people and they are focused on the business. On the other hand, Australians have high moral and values. Further, Singapore is more regulated and centrally controlled as compared to Australia . In day to day matters, things happen fast in Australia as compared to the Singapore. There are some differences between Singapore and Australia in terms of business culture. Because of the plenty of natural resources, the economy of Australia has competitive advantage in producing various products like dairy, meat and wine. Along with this, there are key exporters of minerals and coal, travel and logistics etc for the economic growth. On the other hand, Singapore is the small land area and there is the lack of resources but country has driven itself to innovations. In terms of business languages, Australia has no official language and English is spoken by most of the people in which 2.1 million people speak Asian language and 1.3 million speak European language. In Singapore, English is the business language and also used by people there. Most of the Singaporeans have received formal education. Hofstedes cultural dimensions Hofstedes dimension of culture for the organizational research was carried out by the Greet Hofstede. This dimension can be used by various foreign companies while going to expand the business in the Australian market. There are five key dimensions by which the organization can analyze the culture of Australia. Power distance This dimension focuses on the extent by which employees have low power in the company and organization feel that the distribution of the power is not equal. The unequal distribution of power should be noticed by the organizations in the Australian business culture. The culture of Australia has high level score in the power distance index as the managers have equal rights and powers. This is an appropriate culture for the companies to operate the business. Individualism This dimension focuses on how people are converted in to various groups. If the individualism side is focused by the company then it means that people have to take care of themselves and their family also. There are no strong relations between individuals. If the organizations focus on the side of collectivism then it means groups are formed since their births and they have strong connections. In Australia, the culture is more individualism as compared to the collectivism. They combine the needs of individuals to the welfare of society. The problems of industry are handled by Australia by adopting the approach of individualism which is effective for the organizations for the successful business operations (Alkailani, Azzam Athamneh, 2012). Masculinity It focuses on the distribution of the work among the genders of the society. This can be the issue of the society related to the rights of women. This can be the issue for the companies to manage the business in the Australian market. The culture of the company depends upon the culture of the country. In the Australian context, women are free to select their career options. They are equally contributing in the business as men are doing. There is the culture of openness which would be beneficial for the organizations that are going to enter in the Australian business culture. The culture of Australia has high score in the dimension of masculinity (Tang, 2012). Uncertainty avoidance index This dimension focuses on the degree of culture of the specific country to make the member either feel relaxed or uncomfortable in the situations. There are two ways to avoid uncertainty of culture i.e. avoid culture or accept uncertainty in the culture. By imposing some strict laws and regulations, the uncertainty in the Australian culture can be avoided (Hofstede, 2011). Long term orientation This is the dimension which is focusing on the taking some interviews of some of the Australian scholars. It is said that the western culture is short term oriented which means people have values some traditions to complete all their social obligations. The culture in Australia is long term oriented which is carefulness. The people in Australia use their capability to accomplish their work and objectives in the business culture. People are using western culture to enhance their capability to get success in the business culture (Parente, Baack, Hahn, 2011). Strategies by foreign companies Based on the above discussed model, it is observed that the culture of Australia is open, aggressive and full of value along with the other aspects like working relationships and cooperation. There is the combination of various cultures which attract the organizations to operate the business significantly. Australia has high level of power-distance factor which is the key cultural trait of the country. This factor reveals that there are strong relationships between managers and employees in the organizations operating in the country. To stay effective in the Australian market, foreign companies need to have strategic business plans based on the practical experiences, understanding and insights. Further, to balance the risk, compliance outcomes and taxation, they should have effective business structures. Companies should have existing companies in the Australian market for the easier entry in the market. This cultural aspect of Australia makes the effective market for the organizations to operate the business. Culture of the country focuses on the power and prestige based on the western European culture. People on the high authority try to do their best and impact the subordinates so companies must set some directions for the effective business operations. Australians are hard working and dedicated people so, companies can focus on hiring of the employees so that limited resources can be used effectively (Kragh, 2012). Conclusion Based on the above analysis, it is observed that Australia is the suitable country for the business expansion. In terms of cultural differences between Singapore and Australia, people in Singapore are candid, direct, and state to their points with the confrontational way. Communication is the important topic in the business world. In Australia, there are some aspects of communication which must be taken into consideration. It is observed that people in the country like to do direct communication rather than negotiations. Having a varied workforce is increasingly being recognized within the organization as helpful in improving the performance of the organization, and also a crucial that organizations can focus and solve this. Australia is the country of multicultural factors and it is considered as the politically safe country among the organizations. Further, in the business context people in the country use their capability to accomplish their work and objectives in the business cul ture. They are influenced western culture to enhance their capability to get success in their business operations. Further, the political situation of the country allows people to live with the freedom. Looking at the social and economic aspects of the country, people have their own personal welfare. It is also observed that people in the country are not self-promotional. They communicate directly at any point in the discussions and debates. In the business culture of Australia, people are dedicated towards their work which is helpful for the foreign companies to gain profit in Australian market. Based on Hofstede model, it is analyzed that there is the culture of openness which would be beneficial for the organizations that are going to enter in the Australian business culture. At last, it can be said that the Australian culture is individualism and Australians do not form groups while operating the business. They only form the groups while focusing on the welfare of the society. It is observed that there are various cultural traits in Australia which make the country attractive for doing busine ss. The existing cultural aspects attract various foreign direct investments to expand their business in the country. References Akanni, M. and Ahammad, M. (2015). National Cultural Distance and International Acquisition Performance. JOEBM. 3(2). pp.183-187. Alkailani, M., Azzam, I. and Athamneh, A. (2012). Replicating Hofstede in Jordan: Ungeneralized, Reevaluating the Jordanian Culture. IBR, 5(4). Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture. 2(1). Kragh, S. (2012). The anthropology of nepotism: Social distance and reciprocity in organizations in developing countries: International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. 12(2). pp.247-265. Leahy, M., Dellal, H., Cahill, D., (2004). Religion, and Safeguarding Australia. Retrieved on 31st October 2017 from https://amf.net.au/library/uploads/files/Religion_Cultural_Diversity_Main_Report.pdf Parente, R., Baack, D. and Hahn, E. (2011). The effect of supply chain integration, modular production, and cultural distance on new product development: A dynamic capabilities approach: Journal of International Management. 17(4). pp.278-290. Singh, V., Joshi, P. and Mandhan, S. (2014). Concept Integration using Edit Distance and N-Gram Match. IJDMS. 6(6). pp.01-11 Tang, L. (2012). The direction of cultural distance on FDI: attractiveness or incongruity?. Cross Cultural Management.19(2). pp.233-256. Vidal-Suarez, M. and Lopez-Duarte, C. (2013). Language distance and international acquisitions: A transaction cost approach: International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. 13(1). pp.47-63. Yildiz, H. (2014). Not All Differences Are the Same: Dual Roles of Status and Cultural Distance in Socio-cultural Integration in Cross-border MAs: Journal of International Management. 20(1). pp.25-37.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Basics of the Electron Transport Chain Essays (911 words)

The Basics of the Electron Transport Chain Article Summary:The electron transport chain is the most complex and productive pathway of cellular respiration. Here's a straightforward, simplified explanation of how the ETC works. All living things run on energy. If the organism is a plant or autotrophic microbe, the energy comes from sunlight. For all other forms of life, energy is extracted from nutrients through the reactions of metabolism--cellular respiration. Cellular Respiration the Electron Transport Chain Regardless of whether the original form of energy is sunlight or food, it must ultimately be converted to the cellular energy currency of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). or most organisms, this conversion is accomplished though cellular respiration, a series of biochemical pathways in which glucose (asugar) is broken down and the energy extracted is converted to ATP. The pathways of cellular respiration include: 1. glycolysis, 2. conversion of acetyl-CoA, 3. Kreb's cycle 4. electron transport. Electron transport is the most complex and productive pathway of cellular respiration. Duringaerobic respiration, the ETC produces 34 of the 38 ATP molecules obtained from every molecule of glucose. or most organisms, this conversion is accomplished though cellular respiration, a series of biochemical pathways in which glucose (asugar) is broken down and the energy extracted is converted to ATP. Where the Electron Transport Chain Is Located Electron transport requires a membrane in order to work. Inprokaryotic cells, those of bacteria and bacteria-like Archaeans, electron transport takes place in the cell's plasma membrane, in folded areas called mesosomes. For most organisms, this conversion is accomplished though cellular respiration, a series of biochemical pathways in which glucose (asugar) is broken down and the energy extracted is converted to ATP. The pathways of cellular respiration include: 1. glycolysis 2. conversion of acetyl-CoA 3. Kreb's cycle 4. electron transport. Electron transport is the most complex and productive pathway of cellular respiration. Duringaerobic respiration, the ETC produces 34 of the 38 ATP molecules obtained from every molecule of glucose. Whichever type of membrane houses the cell's electron transport chains (plasma membrane, inner membrane of mitochondria or the tylakoid membrane of chloroplasts)cells have many ETCs running continuously, to produce the ATP energy required for cells to survive and thrive. How the ETC Works Most of theATPmade incellular respiration comes from the stepwise release of energy, of a series of oxidation-reduction reactions between molecules embedded in the plasma membrane(prokaryotes)or mitochondria(eukaryotes). It is easiest to understand how electron transport works by dividing this process into three main events: 1.Oxidation Reduction Reactions During glycolysis, synthesis of acetyl-CoA and Kreb's cycle, the electron carriers NAD+ and FADH are reduced to form NADH and FADH2 respectively. These molecules are like little rechargeable batteries, and when NAD+ and FADH are reduced, this means that they accept and carry electrons and hydrogen ions (H+), potential energy that can be used later in cellular respiration. In the electron transport chain, these electron carriers are oxidized, transferring their electrons to the carrier molecules embedded in the ETC membrane. In aerobic respiration, these electrons are passed from one carrier molecule to another in a series of oxidation-reduction reactions, and ultimately to the final electron acceptor, oxygen (O2), that combines with hydrogen, resulting a water (H2O), a metabolic waste product. 2.Creation of Hydrogen Ion Gradient The energy from each electron being passed down the chain is used to pump a proton (H+) through each carrier molecule, from one side of the membrane to the other. This creates a proton gradient, a type ofconcentration gradient(difference in concentration of a substance between two sides of a membrane), and gradients are potential energy available for cellular work. 3.Phosphorylation of ADP(The payoff!) The hydrogen ions (H+), on the side of the membrane where most concentrated, will eventually flow back across the membrane, down the proton gradient, through anenzymecalledATP synthase. As each H+ moves back across the membrane, the enzyme ATP synthase phosphorylates (adds a phosphate to) adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to make the high energymolecule ATP, which can be used for many different energy-requiring reactions throughout the cell. Taken from : http ://www.scienceprofonline.com/metabolism/electron-transport-chain-cellular-respiration-3.html 10 QUESTIONS How does the ETC works? If the organism is a plant or autotrophic microbe, the energy comes from sunlight. For all other forms of life, energy is extracted from nutrients through the reactions of metabolism--cellular respiration. Which are the pathways of cellular respiration? glycolysis conversion of acetyl-CoA Kreb's cycle electron transport. During aerobic respiration ,how many